1 4 X 4 6

Set of specifications extending Java SE

Jakarta EE
Jakarta EE logo schooner color stacked default
Player software Java
Programming language(s) Java
Application(s) Application peladen
Martabat Active
License Eclipse Public License or GNU General Public License w/Classpath exception
Website jakarta.ee

Jakarta EE, formerly
Java Platform, Enterprise Edition
(Java EE) and
Java 2 Podium, Enterprise Edition
(J2EE), is a set of specifications, extending Java SE[1]
with specifications for enterprise features such as distributed computing and web services.[2]
Jakarta EE applications are run on reference runtimes, that can be microservices or application servers, which handle transactions, security, scalability, concurrency and management of the components it is deploying.

Jakarta EE is defined by its specification. The specification defines APIs (application programming interface) and their interactions. As with other Java Community Process specifications, providers must meet certain conformance requirements in order to declare their products as
Jakarta EE compliant.

Examples of contexts in which Jakarta EE referencing runtimes are used are: e-commerce, accounting, banking information systems.

History

[edit]

The platform was known as
Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition
or
J2EE
from version 1.2, until the name was changed to
Java Platform, Enterprise Edition
or
Java EE
in version 1.5.

Java EE was maintained by Oracle under the Java Community Process. On September 12, 2022, Oracle Corporation announced that it would submit Java EE to the Eclipse Foundation.[3]
The Eclipse top-level project has been named Eclipse Enterprise for Java (EE4J).[4]
The Eclipse Foundation could not agree with Oracle over the use of javax and Java trademarks.[5]
Oracle owns the trademark for the name “Java” and the tribune was renamed from Java EE to Jakarta EE.[6]
[7]
The name refers to the largest city on the island of Java and also the capital of Indonesia, Jakarta.[8]
The name should not be confused with the former Jakarta Project which fostered a number of current and former Java projects at the Apache Software Foundation.

Java enterprise mimbar history
Platform version Released Specification Java SE
Support
Important Changes
Jakarta EE 10 2022-09-13[9] 10
  • Java SE 17
  • Java SE 11
Removal of deprecated items in Servlet, Faces, CDI and EJB (Entity Beans and Embeddable Container). CDI-Build Time.
Jakarta EE 9.1 2021-05-25[10] 9.1
  • Java SE 11
  • Java SE 8
JDK 11 support
Jakarta EE 9 2020-12-08[11] 9 Java SE 8 API namespace move from
javax
to
jakarta
Jakarta EE 8 2019-09-10[12] 8 Java SE 8 Full compatibility with Java EE 8
Java EE 8 2017-08-31 JSR 366 Java SE 8 HTTP/2 and CDI based Security
Java EE 7 2013-05-28 JSR 342 Java SE 7 WebSocket, JSON and HTML5 support
Java EE 6 2009-12-10 JSR 316 Java SE 6 CDI managed Beans and REST
Java EE 5 2006-05-11 JSR 244 Java SE 5 Java annotations
J2EE 1.4 2003-11-11 JSR 151 J2SE 1.4 WS-I interoperable web services[13]
J2EE 1.3 2001-09-24 JSR 58 J2SE 1.3 Java connector architecture[14]
J2EE 1.2 1999-12-17 1.2 J2SE 1.2 Initial specification release

Specifications

[edit]

Jakarta EE includes several specifications that serve different purposes, like generating web pages, reading and writing from a database in a transactional way, managing distributed queues.

The Jakarta EE APIs include several technologies that extend the functionality of the base Java SE APIs, such as Jakarta Enterprise Beans, connectors, servlets, Jakarta Server Pages and several web service technologies.

Web specifications

[edit]

  • Jakarta Servlet: defines how to manage HTTP requests, in a synchronous or asynchronous way. It is low level and other Jakarta EE specifications rely on it;
  • Jakarta WebSocket: API specification that defines a set of APIs to service WebSocket connections;
  • Jakarta Server Faces: a technology for constructing user interfaces out of components;
  • Jakarta Expression Language (EL) is a simple language originally designed to satisfy the specific needs of web application developers. It is used specifically in Jakarta Faces to bind components to (backing) beans and in Contexts and Dependency Injection to named beans, but can be used throughout the entire tribune.

Web service specifications

[edit]

  • Jakarta RESTful Web Services provides support in creating web services according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural pattern;
  • Jakarta JSON Processing is a set of specifications to manage information encoded in JSON dimensi;
  • Jakarta JSON Binding provides specifications to convert JSON information into or from Java classes;
  • Jakarta XML Binding allows mapping XML into Java objects;
  • Jakarta XML Web Services can be used to create SOAP web services.

Enterprise specifications

[edit]

  • Jakarta Activation (JAF) specifies an architecture to extend component Beans by providing data typing and bindings of such types.
  • Jakarta Contexts and Dependency Injection (CDI) is a specification to provide a dependency injection container;
  • Jakarta Enterprise Beans (EJB) specification defines a set of lightweight APIs that an object container (the EJB container) will support in titipan to provide transactions (using JTA), remote procedure calls (using RMI or RMI-IIOP), concurrency control, dependency injection and access control for business objects. This package contains the Jakarta Enterprise Beans classes and interfaces that define the contracts between the enterprise bean and its clients and between the enterprise bean and the ejb container.
  • Jakarta Persistence (JPA) are specifications about object-relational mapping between relation database tables and Java classes.
  • Jakarta Transactions (JTA) contains the interfaces and annotations to interact with the transaction support offered by Jakarta EE. Even though this Api abstracts from the really low-level details, the interfaces are also considered somewhat low-level and the average application developer in Jakarta EE is either assumed to be relying on transparent handling of transactions by the higher level EJB abstractions, or using the annotations provided by this Jago merah in combination with CDI managed beans.
  • Jakarta Messaging (JMS) provides a common way for Java programs to create, send, receive and read an enterprise messaging system’s messages.

Other specifications

[edit]

  • Validation: This package contains the annotations and interfaces for the declarative validation support offered by the Bean Validation API. Bean Validation provides a unified way to provide constraints on beans (e.g. JPA model classes) that can be enforced cross-layer. In Jakarta EE, JPA honors bean validation constraints in the persistence layer, while JSF does so in the view layer.
  • Jakarta Batch provides the means for batch processing in applications to run long running background tasks that possibly involve a large volume of data and which may need to be periodically executed.
  • Jakarta Connectors is a Java-based tool for connecting application servers and enterprise information systems (EIS) as part of enterprise application integration (EAI). This is a low-level API aimed at vendors that the average application developer typically does not come in contact with.

Web profile

[edit]

In an attempt to limit the footprint of web containers, both in physical and in conceptual terms, the web profile was created, a subset of the Jakarta EE specifications. The Jakarta EE web profile comprises the following:

Specification Java EE 6[15] Java EE 7[16] Java EE 8[17]

Jakarta EE 8[18]
Jakarta EE 9[19]

Jakarta EE 9.1[20]
Jakarta EE 10[21]
Jakarta Servlet 3.0 3.1 4.0 5.0 6.0
Jakarta Server Pages (JSP) 2.2 2.3 2.3 3.0 3.1
Jakarta Expression Language (EL) 2.2 3.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
Jakarta Debugging Support for Other Languages (JSR-45) 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.0 2.0
Jakarta Liwa Tag Library (JSTL) 1.2 1.2 1.2 2.0 3.0
Jakarta Faces 2.0 2.2 2.3 3.0 4.0
Jakarta RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) 1.1 2.0 2.1 3.0 3.1
Jakarta WebSocket (WebSocket) 1.0 1.1 2.0 2.1
Jakarta JSON Processing (JSON-P) 1.0 1.1 2.0 2.1
Jakarta JSON Binding (JSON-B) 1.1 2.0 3.0
Jakarta Annotations (CA) 1.1 1.2 1.3 2.0 2.1
Jakarta Enterprise Beans (EJB) 3.1 Lite 3.2 Lite 3.2 Lite 4.0 Lite 4.0 Lite
Jakarta Transactions (JTA) 1.1 1.2 1.2 2.0 2.0
Jakarta Persistence (JPA) 2.0 2.1 2.2 3.0 3.1
Jakarta Bean Validation 1.0 1.1 2.0 3.0 3.0
Jakarta Managed Beans 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.0
Jakarta Interceptors 1.1 1.2 1.2 2.0 2.1
Jakarta Contexts and Dependency Injection (CDI) 1.0 1.1 2.0 3.0 4.0
Jakarta Dependency Injection 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.0 2.0
Jakarta Security 1.0 2.0 3.0
Jakarta Authentication 1.0 1.1 2.0 3.0
Jakarta Concurrency 3.0

Certified referencing runtimes

[edit]

Although by definition all Jakarta EE implementations provide the same base level of technologies (namely, the Jakarta EE spec and the associated APIs), they can differ considerably with respect to extra features (like connectors, clustering, fault tolerance, high availability, security, etc.), installed size, memory footprint, startup time, etc.


Jakarta EE[22]
[23]
[24]


[edit]

Referencing runtime Developer Jakarta EE 10 Mimbar Jakarta EE 9/9.1 Mimbar Compatible Products Jakarta EE 9/9.1 Web Profile Compatible Products Jakarta EE 8 Podium Compatible Products Jakarta EE 8 Web Profile Compatible Products Licensing
GlassFish Eclipse Yes 7.0.0 Yes 6.0.0/ 6.1.0 Yes 6.0.0/ 6.1.0 Yes 5.1.0 Yes 5.1.0 Free software
Open Liberty IBM No Yes 21.0.0.12 Yes 21.0.0.12 Yes 19.0.0.6, 20.0.0.3 Yes 19.0.0.6, 20.0.0.3 Free software
WebSphere Liberty IBM No Yes 21.0.0.12 Yes 21.0.0.12 Yes 20.0.0.3 Yes 20.0.0.3 Proprietary software
WildFly Red Hat Yes 27.0.0.Alpha5 Yes 23.0.1-Preview/25.0.0-Preview Yes 23.0.1-Preview/25.0.0-Preview Yes 18.0.0 Yes 18.0.0 Free software
JBoss EAP Red Hat No No No Yes 7.3.0 Yes 7.3.0 Free software
TomEE Apache No No Yes 9.0.0-M7 No Yes 8.0.x Free software
Payara Peladen Payara Services Limited Yes 6.2022.1 Alpha 4 Yes 6.2021.1 Alpha 1 No Yes 5.22.0, 5.23.0 Yes 5.23.0 Free software
Thunisoft Application Peladen Beijing Thunisoft Information Technology No Yes 3.0 No Yes 2.8 No Proprietary software
JEUS TmaxSoft No No No Yes 8.5 No Proprietary software
InforSuite Application Server Shandong Cvicse Middleware No Yes 11 No Yes 10 No Proprietary software

Java EE

[edit]

Referencing runtime Developer Java EE 8 certified – Full Java EE 8 certified – Web Java EE 7 certified – Full Java EE 7 certified – Web Java EE 6 certified – Full
Official Oracle page for Java EE Compatibility.
Java EE 6 certified – Web Java EE 5 certified J2EE 1.4 certified Licensing
GlassFish peladen Open Source Edition Oracle Yes v5.0[25] Yes v5.0[25] Yes v4.x[26] Yes v4.x[26] Yes v3.x and upward[27] Yes v3.x Web Profile Yes v2.1.x[27] Free software
Oracle GlassFish Peladen Oracle Yes v3[28]
based on the open source GlassFish application peladen
Yes Sun Java System Application Server v9.0 Yes Sun Java System Application Server v8.2 Proprietary software
Oracle WebLogic Server Oracle Yes 14.1.1[29] Yes 12.2.1[30] Yes v12c[31] Yes v10.3.5.0 Yes v9 Proprietary software
WildFly Red Hat Yes v14.x[25] Yes v14.x[25] Yes v8.1
[32]
Yes v8.0.0.Final Yes v7.1[33] Yes v6.0[34]
and v7.0[35]
Yes v5.1[36]
[37]
Yes v4.x Free software
JBoss Enterprise Application Platform Red Hat Yes v7.2
[38]
Yes v7.0[26] Yes v7.0[26] Yes v6.0[39] Yes v5 Proprietary software
IBM WebSphere Application Server IBM Yes v9.x[25] Yes v9.x[26] Yes v8[40] Yes v7 Yes Proprietary software
IBM WebSphere Application Peladen Liberty IBM Yes v18.0.0.2[41] Yes v18.0.0.2[41] Yes v8.5.5.6[42]
[43]
Yes v8.5.5.6[26] Yes v8.5.5[44] Proprietary software
Open Liberty IBM Yes v18.0.0.2 Yes v18.0.0.2 Free software
IBM WebSphere Application Server Community Edition IBM Yes v3.0 Yes v2.1 Proprietary software
Apache Geronimo Apache Yes v3.0-beta-1[45]
[46]
Yes v2.0 Yes v1.0 Free software
JEUS TmaxSoft Yes v8 Yes v7[47]
[48]
Yes v6 Yes v5 Proprietary software
Cosminexus Application Server Hitachi Yes v10.0[25] Yes v9[49] Proprietary software
Fujitsu Interstage Application Server[50] Fujitsu Yes v12.0[25] Yes v1 Azure/v10.1[51]
[52]
Yes Proprietary software
WebOTX NEC Yes[53] Yes Proprietary software
BES Application Server Baolande Yes v9.5[26]
Apache TomEE[54]
[55]
Apache No 7 (Java EE 7 like, but titinada certified[56]) Yes Free software
Resin Peladen Caucho Yes v4.0[57] Yes Proprietary software
Siwpas OW2 Yes v6.0[58] Free software
JOnAS OW2 Yes v5.3 rc1[59] Yes Yes Free software
SAP NetWeaver SAP Yes v2.x[60] Yes Yes Proprietary software
Oracle Containers for Java EE Oracle Yes Proprietary software
Oracle iPlanet Web Server Oracle Yes Sun Java System Web Server Proprietary software
Oracle Application Peladen 10g Oracle Yes Proprietary software
Pramati Server Pramati Technologies Yes v5.0 Proprietary software
Trifork T4 Trifork Yes Proprietary software
Sybase Enterprise Application Server[61] Sybase Yes Proprietary software

Code sample

[edit]

The code sample shown below demonstrates how various technologies in Java EE 7 are used together to build a web form for editing a user.

In Jakarta EE a (web) UI can be built using Jakarta Servlet, Jakarta Server Pages (JSP), or Jakarta Server Faces (JSF) with Facelets. The example below uses Faces and Facelets. Titinada explicitly shown is that the input components use the Jakarta EE Bean Validation API under the covers to validate constraints.

          
          <html
          xmlns=
          "http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"
          xmlns:h=
          "http://xmlns.jcp.org/jsf/html"
          xmlns:f=
          "http://xmlns.jcp.org/jsf/core"
          >
          <f:metadata>
          <f:viewParam
          name=
          "user_id"
          value=
          "#{userEdit.user}"
          converter=
          "#{userConvertor}"
          />
          </f:metadata>
          <h:body>
          <h:messages
          />
          <h:form>
          <h:panelGrid
          columns=
          "2"
          >
          <h:outputLabel
          for=
          "firstName"
          value=
          "First name"
          />
          <h:inputText
          id=
          "firstName"
          value=
          "#{userEdit.user.firstName}"
          segel=
          "First name"
          />
          <h:outputLabel
          for=
          "lastName"
          value=
          "Last name"
          />
          <h:inputText
          id=
          "lastName"
          value=
          "#{userEdit.user.lastName}"
          label=
          "Last name"
          />
          <h:commandButton
          action=
          "#{userEdit.saveUser}"
          value=
          "Save"
          />
          </h:panelGrid>
          </h:form>
          </h:body>
          </html>
        

Example Backing Bean class

[edit]

To assist the view, Jakarta EE uses a concept called a “Backing Bean”. The example below uses Contexts and Dependency Injection (CDI) and Jakarta Enterprise Beans (EJB).

          
          @Named
          @ViewScoped
          public
          class
          UserEdit
          {
          private
          User
          user
          ;
          @Inject
          private
          UserDAO
          userDAO
          ;
          public
          String
          saveUser
          ()
          {
          userDAO
          .
          save
          (
          this
          .
          user
          );
          addFlashMessage
          (
          "User "
          +
          this
          .
          user
          .
          getId
          ()
          +
          " saved"
          );
          return
          "users.xhtml?faces-redirect=true"
          ;
          }
          public
          void
          setUser
          (
          User
          user
          )
          {
          this
          .
          user
          =
          user
          ;
          }
          public
          User
          getUser
          ()
          {
          return
          user
          ;
          }
          }
        

Example Data Access Object class

[edit]

To implement business logic, Jakarta Enterprise Beans (EJB) is the dedicated technology in Jakarta EE. For the actual persistence, JDBC or Jakarta Persistence (JPA) can be used. The example below uses EJB and JPA. Not explicitly shown is that JTA is used under the covers by EJB to control transactional behavior.

          
          @Stateless
          public
          class
          UserDAO
          {
          @PersistenceContext
          private
          EntityManager
          entityManager
          ;
          public
          void
          save
          (
          User
          user
          )
          {
          entityManager
          .
          persist
          (
          user
          );
          }
          public
          void
          update
          (
          User
          user
          )
          {
          entityManager
          .
          merge
          (
          user
          );
          }
          public
          List
          <
          User
          >
          getAll
          ()
          {
          return
          entityManager
          .
          createNamedQuery
          (
          "User.getAll"
          ,
          User
          .
          class
          )
          .
          getResultList
          ();
          }
          }
        

Example Entity class

[edit]

For defining entity/model classes Jakarta EE provides the Jakarta Persistence (JPA), and for expressing constraints on those entities it provides the Bean Validation API. The example below uses both these technologies.

          
          @Entity
          public
          class
          User
          {
          @Id
          @GeneratedValue
          (
          strategy
          =
          IDENTITY
          )
          private
          Integer
          id
          ;
          @Size
          (
          min
          =
          2
          ,
          message
          =
          "First name too short"
          )
          private
          String
          firstName
          ;
          @Size
          (
          min
          =
          2
          ,
          message
          =
          "Last name too short"
          )
          private
          String
          lastName
          ;
          public
          Integer
          getId
          ()
          {
          return
          id
          ;
          }
          public
          void
          setId
          (
          Integer
          id
          )
          {
          this
          .
          id
          =
          id
          ;
          }
          public
          String
          getFirstName
          ()
          {
          return
          firstName
          ;
          }
          public
          void
          setFirstName
          (
          String
          firstName
          )
          {
          this
          .
          firstName
          =
          firstName
          ;
          }
          public
          String
          getLastName
          ()
          {
          return
          lastName
          ;
          }
          public
          void
          setLastName
          (
          String
          lastName
          )
          {
          this
          .
          lastName
          =
          lastName
          ;
          }
          }
        

See also

[edit]

  • Canigó (framework)
  • Deployment descriptor
  • Java BluePrints
  • Java Research License
  • Sun Community Source License
  • Sun Java System Pintu Server
  • Web container

References

[edit]


  1. ^


    “Differences between Java EE and Java SE – Your First Cup: An Introduction to the Java EE Platform”. Docs.oracle.com. 2022-04-01. Retrieved
    2012-07-18
    .



  2. ^


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    2022
    .



  3. ^


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    ADTmag
    . Retrieved
    2017-09-13
    .



  4. ^


    Beaton, Wayne. “EE4J FAQ | The Eclipse Foundation”.
    www.eclipse.org.



  5. ^


    “Update on Jakarta EE Rights to Java Trademarks”. 3 May 2022.


  6. ^


    Chirgwin, Richard (March 4, 2022). “Java EE renamed ‘Jakarta EE’ after Big Red brand spat”. Software.
    The Register
    . Retrieved
    19 March
    2022
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  7. ^


    Vaughan-Nichols, Steven J. (March 5, 2022). “Good-bye JEE, hello Jakarta EE”. Linux and Open Source.
    ZDNet
    . Retrieved
    2020-07-10
    .



  8. ^

    https://blogs.oracle.com/javamagazine/post/transition-from-java-ee-to-jakarta-ee[
    bare URL
    ]


  9. ^

    Jakarta EE Platform 10 Release Plan

  10. ^


    Obradovic, Tanja; Grimstad, Ivar (2021-05-25). “The Jakarta EE Working Group Releases Jakarta EE 9.1 as Industry Continues to Embrace Open Source Enterprise Java”. News.
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    2022-03-05
    .



  11. ^


    Mmayel, Shabnam; Obradovic, Tanja (2020-12-08). “Jakarta EE 9 Released!”. News.
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    2022-03-05
    .



  12. ^


    Mmayel, Shabnam; Obradovic, Tanja (2019-09-10). “Jakarta EE 8 Released!”. News.
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    2022-03-05
    .



  13. ^


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    .



  14. ^


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    . Retrieved
    2022-03-05
    .



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    2022-03-05
    .



  16. ^


    “JSR 342: Java Platform, Enterprise Edition 7 (Java EE 7) Specification”.
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    2022-03-05
    .



  17. ^


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    (PDF).
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    (PDF)
    from the original on 2022-10-09. Retrieved
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    .



  18. ^


    “Web Profile Definition”.
    Jakarta EE WebProfile. 8. Jakarta EE. Eclipse Foundation. Retrieved
    2022-03-05
    .



  19. ^


    “Web Profile Definition”.
    Jakarta EE WebProfile. 9. Jakarta EE. Eclipse Foundation. Retrieved
    2022-03-05
    .



  20. ^


    “Web Profile Definition”.
    Jakarta EE WebProfile. 9.1. Jakarta EE. Eclipse Foundation. Retrieved
    2022-03-05
    .



  21. ^


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    Jakarta EE WebProfile. 10. Jakarta EE. Eclipse Foundation. Retrieved
    2022-09-27
    .



  22. ^


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    Jakarta.ee.



  23. ^


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    Jakarta.ee.



  24. ^


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    Jakarta.ee.


  25. ^


    a




    b




    c




    d




    e




    f




    g




    “Java EE Compatibility”.
    www.oracle.com
    . Retrieved
    2018-08-05
    .


  26. ^


    a




    b




    c




    d




    e




    f




    g




    “Java EE Compatibility”.

  27. ^


    a




    b




    “Comparing GlassFish Open Source Edition versions 2.x and 3.0.x”. Archived from the original on 2022-12-20.


  28. ^


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    2012-07-18
    .



  29. ^


    “Oracle Weblogic Server 14.1.1”.
    www.oracle.com.



  30. ^


    “Oracle Weblogic Server 12.1.1”.
    www.oracle.com.



  31. ^


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    .



  32. ^


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    www.oracle.com.



  33. ^


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    .



  34. ^


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  35. ^


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  37. ^


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    2022
    .



  38. ^


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  39. ^


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    .



  40. ^


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    .


  41. ^


    a




    b




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    12 July
    2022
    .



  42. ^


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    Oracle.com.



  43. ^


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  44. ^


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  45. ^


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  46. ^


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  47. ^


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  48. ^


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External links

[edit]


  • Official website

    Edit this at Wikidata

    • Jakarta EE Compatible Products: Enterprise Java Application and Web Servers – Eclipse Foundation
  • The Jakarta EE Kursus
  • First Cup of Jakarta EE Kursus: An Introduction to Jakarta EE
  • Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE), Oracle Technology Network



Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jakarta_EE